Cette édition de l'Étude Économique de l'OCDE de Pay-Bas pour 2010 couvre les finances publiques, le système de retraite, le secteur des transports et la mobilité de la main-d'oeuvre.
For half a century, the OECD Code of Liberalisation of Capital Movements has provided a balanced framework for capital account openness. This new edition of the Code presents the full text of the Code, setting out the rights and obligations of adhering countries. It also shows how far each of the 34 adhering countries is open to international capital movements, as of March 2011.
This report enhances the transparency, accountability and public visibility of the Guidelines for MNEs, one of the OECD's most successful instruments, and more particularly the major improvements brought about by the 2011 Update, and highlights the outcome of the 2011 Corporate Responsibility Roundtable, a multi-stakholder brainstorming on the launch of the work of the updated Guidelines.
The report provides a first assessment of the outcome of the 2011 Update of the Guidelines adopted at the OECD Ministerial Meeting and a compilation of ideas for future implementation. It also reports the actions taken by the 42 adhering governments from June 2010 to June 2011.
OECD governments are facing unprecedented challenges in the markets for government securities as a result of continued strong borrowing amid a highly uncertain environment with growing concerns about the pace of recovery, surging borrowing costs, sovereign risk and contagion pressures.
The OECD Sovereign Borrowing Outlook provides estimates for 2011 and projections for 2012. Higher than anticipated gross borrowing needs of OECD governments are expected to reach USD 10.4 trillion in 2011 and USD 10.5 trillion in 2012, including a strong increase in longer-term redemptions in 2012. Against this backdrop government debt ratios are expected to remain at high levels.
Raising large volumes of funds at lowest cost, with acceptable roll-over risk, remains therefore a great challenge for a wide range of governments, with most OECD debt managers continuing to rebalance the profile of debt portfolios by issuing more long-term instruments and moderating bill issuance.
Additional challenges for government (and corporate) issuers are the complications generated by the pressures of a rapid increase in sovereign risk, whereby "the market" suddenly perceives the debt of some sovereigns as "risky", as well as euro area-induced contagion effects. Growing concerns among investors have resulted in the offloading of significant holdings of European debt.
The role of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in the Middle East and North African economies (MENA) has historically been and remains significant in terms of their contribution to the economic value added, employment and the provision of vital services. State-owned enterprises operate across a wide range of sectors in the region - hydrocarbons, banking, construction - but also in network industries. Despite the privatisations carried out during the 1980-1990s, the role of the state in Arab economies has not declined and in many ways have indeed increased, reflecting the growth of oil and gas SOEs, sovereign wealth funds and infrastructure development projects, often carried out with the involvement of the state. This publication seeks to provide insight into the varied and rich experience in SOE reform in the region over the past decade, highlighting reform initiatives undertaken at national and country specific levels. It is unique in highlighting the challenges faced by policymakers in reforming the governance of regional SOEs